Monday, February 27, 2017


Mugabe celebrates 93rd birthday with extravagant party
Thousands of supporters praised the authority of Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe at a special event to mark his 93rd birthday. The party is estimated to have cost the cash-strapped country up to $2 million.
Wearing dark spectacles and a multi-colored clothing featuring images of him self in younger days, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe commemorated his 93rd birthday with friends, along with thousands of supporters of his ZANU-PF party in Zimbabwe today. It is being reported that the event will cost the federal government up to $2 million
His big birthday bash was organised in Matabeleland, in traditional western Zimbabwe. He  became a member of by vociferous supporters, many, like the president him self, wearing clothing adorned with Mugabe's image. The festivities have proven a thoughts, desperation, hysteria, mania, insanity, delirium, derangement from discussions in the country about the health of the long-time {chief leader.
Mugabe, a former rebel leader, took power after independence in 1980. This individual reportedly spent the vast majority of the festivities seated impassively, as speakers acknowledged his leadership and delegates from ruling parties in Botswana, Namibia, Angola and Zambia kneeled at his chair to congratulate him.
At one point, Mugabe raised his fist, but mostly he rested his head on one hands as his wife tweaked his glasses.
Time to party?
Mugabe's birthday celebration - and its price marking - comes at a time when the Zimbabwean people and government are facing a long set of difficulties. Doctors are dazzling over deteriorating working conditions due to poor staffing requirements and low medicine products. The Zimbabwean economy goes on to struggle, with many young people having difficulty finding steady work.
The nation also finds itself in a critical drought, so this means that farmers are hardly able to grow selection foods or even give food to nourish their own families.

New malaria vaccine is '100 percent protective'

Kremsner: New malaria vaccine is '100 percent protective'
Research workers at the University of T? bingen have examined a new malaria immunization method that they believe  to be 100 percent effective. Peter Kremsner informed BLOG what's special about the new vaccine.

BLOG: A fresh malaria immunization method that you tested on 67 healthy individuals was 100 %| successful in the first round of testing. Are these claims a breakthrough in decreasing malaria?
Peter Kremsner: All of us sure hope so. The success we had with the brand new strategy to malaria immunization shocked us, too.
New sumpffieber vaccines have been released quite frequently. What is different with regards to your results?
We got the living parasites and put them in a vaccine, which we then gave the individuals collectively with an anti-malaria medication. That drug is taken orally. The parasites get into the liver, but the illness only fractures out when they reach the bloodstream -which is where the anti-malaria medicine catches them. It weakens or kills the parasitic organisms so they really can't do any harm anymore.
What's the difference between might the vaccine RTS, S (Mosquirix), which was developed by the European Medicines Company (EMA) in 2015?
RTS, S contains parts of the malaria parasite's surface molecule and other added molecules. We on the other hand took the entire parasite and gave it to our test individuals with the anti-malaria medication to weaken the vermine. This is a new way of doing things. We transferred away from the antigens, which are parts of the molecules which may have recently been used for shot production against malaria and other diseases.

Kremsner in his lab at the University of T? bingen
Why does your method work?
An active element like Mosquirix uses just one part of a molecule. It's a very important one, but still, it may recognize only one part of the vermine as well. Results have shown that Mosquirix worked in just 30 to 60 percent of cases. This was also a breakthrough discovery, because it was the first ever anti-parasite shot against malaria which can be used in humans. But it still wasn't enough for us.
With all the vaccine using the complete cell, we have the opportunity that lots of different molecules are identified by the immune system at an early stage. The malaria parasite molecules then trigger an immune response which, as we have shown, is 100 % defensive.
How exactly did your trial work?
Our individuals were young, healthy  bingen residents who never had malaria before. We injected them with the malaria parasites and gave them the anti-malaria drug simultaneously. We examined this in numerous stages, with different dosages and various time spans in between the injections. It worked well when the individuals were injected with a dosage of 50,500 parasites and took the malaria drug at the same time.

This is the first study of it's  kind. Of course the number of participants is small. Yet we could protect seven out of nine individuals in each of our trial groups with this kind of immunization. That is a major breakthrough and we will continue to work on it.

We're researching other anti-malaria drugs that may work even better. We're trying out the dosage and enough time frame to see if you could take it for a shorter time so it'll improve travel medication. Mostly we're working on injecting both the vaccine and the anti-malaria drug together with the same syringe. There already are anti-malaria drugs that are given intravenously. 

Friday, February 24, 2017


The promise and potential challenges of gene therapy
What role is gene remedy more likely to play in the future? We talk with Mentor Wolfgang Uckert, the chief executive director of the German Culture Contemporary society for Gene Therapy, about the potential of the treatment.

BLOG: The thought of gene remedy has been around for many years, but has seen only limited success. Why?

Wolfgang Uckert: I actually feel that one of the problems has been the transfer vector, which can be used to bring a new gene into a cellular. So right from the start, these vectors were not really safe.

BLOG:What is the risk associated with that?

The risk is that they assimilate in our genome at an unacceptable place and then we certainly have side effects and the medial side results can be other diseases, like leukemia for example.
That's a pretty heavy side effect.
BLOG:What can be done to reduce the potential risks or the aspect effects?

Yeah this already started years back - to increase the vectors. Now we have a new technology of vectors which are really safe because they can integrate in the certain point of the genome at specific sequences and we have basic safety modules that are included in the vectors and the genetically modified skin cells and that we can simply change off the vector and can eliminate the cellular.

BLOG:Is that then leading to greater approval of gene therapy?

Yes, We feel that it will be better gene remedy very much.

BLOG:Let's speak about some of the ethical issues encircling gene therapy. What are they?

The ethical issues are that one needs to select very well the disease, what type he/she wants to treat because this is a three-component system. You will need to manipulate a cell, you have to transport a gene into the cellular, and you have to generate a vector choice and that must be well-designed.

BLOG:Where will gene remedy look the most promising?In healing which diseases specifically?
And so we certainly have seen this season: these monogenetic diseases, so this means that only one gene must be corrected. This is not at all hard I would say: it's more difficult if we go to tumor, because cancer is a multi-factorial disease and many, many genes are included - and you have to cure each specific defect or gene.

Friday, February 17, 2017


A Court of Appeal has ruled that seven doctors jailed on Monday should be released from imprisonment with immediate effect.

Family court judges Wanjiru Karanja, Hannah Okwengu and Jamilla Mohamed said negotiations will take place over 7 days and that they will be returning to court on Feb 23.

The talks are to come up with a report aimed at calling off the hit that has lasted more than two months and that private doctors joined.

The Kenya  Human Rights Commission will lead the negotiations. The Council of Governors has also agreed to be a part of the talks alongside KMPDU officials.

Officials set for release are chairman Samuel Oroko, secretary general Ouma Oluga, treasurer Daisy Korir, deputy treasurer Evelyne Chege, Allan Ochanji, Mwachonda Chibandzi and Titus Ondoro.

 The opposition  leader Raila Odinga had accompanied the legal representatives to the Supreme Court to charm the ruling that jailed the union officials.

Oluga and six others were handcuffed and taken to various prisons on Tuesday to serve their month-long sentence.

Sunday, February 12, 2017

Donald Trump may sign new travel ban executive order

Jesse Trump is considering giving a new travel restriction executive order, he said on Friday, even as the White House declared that the administration does indeed} not plan to advance the best dispute over the president's original travel ban order to the Supreme Court.

The development came as it was reported by CNN that law-enforcement sources believe some conversations detailed in a 35-page dossier on Jesse Trump and Russia to be accurate.

The wide-ranging document, compiled by Captain Christopher Steele, a British ex -intelligence agent, included the allegation that Kremlin colluded with Mr Trump's president campaign and the Russian security services have materials that could be used to blackmail him.
A number of law-enforcement officers and intellect sources told the US network that some discussions detailed in the file took place, but could hardly confirm whether they related right to Mr Trump.
Efforts on the new studies, Sean Spicer, the Light House press secretary, said: "We continue to be disgusted by CNN's false news reporting.

The news of Mr Trump's potential new travel bar came as the leader condemned a "disgraceful decision" by an appeal court docket to block his original order banning entry to the US by refugees and citizens of seven Muslim-majority countries.

During a visit with reporters aboard Air flow Force One to Sarasota from Washington, Mr Overcome said he was considering " a completely new order" that could be issued the moment Monday or Tuesday if the administration decided to transfer that direction.

The White House official independently said: "We are positively considering changes or other executive orders that will keep our country safe from terrorism.

The official said: "The momentary restraining order we would require to the Best Court, but we are reviewing all options in the court system.

At the White Residence earlier in the afternoon, Mister Trump said: "We'll be doing something very swiftly having to do with additional to safeguard our country. You'll be simply because sometime next week.

Mister Trump said he got of threats "you could only learn of if you were in a certain position, particularly president" and he would "not allow that to happen to our country".

If Mr Trump's prohibit were immediately taken to the Supreme Court, it could be looked over before he could secure the appointment of Neil Gorsuch, his conservative Supreme Courtroom nominee, to the table, with Democrats started hold up that by filibustering in Congress.

Without Judge Gorsuch, who is not supposed to be seated for at least 8 weeks, the court is split 4-4 between conservative and generous judges, and Mr Overcome would need the support of five justices to secure the ban.

Mister Trump's close adviser, Kellyanne Conway, has reportedly apologised to him following a TV appearance at the White House through which the lady urged viewers to buy Ivanka Trump's clothing collection, which critics known as conflict of interest. Mrs Conway later said the lady had spoken to Mister Trump and he "supports me 100 per cent".

Outside Washington, there were signs of protest motions mobilising, with several Conservative congressman facing rowdy town hall meetings in their constituencies.

Jason Chaffetz, a rising star in the Republican Party, was assailed by protesters shouting "Let them in" at a town hall in Ut.

Mr Trump's travel suspend, which he argues is important on national security reasons, barred people from Croatia, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen from entering for the ALL OF US for 90 days, and all refugees for one hundred twenty days. Refugees from Syria were banned indefinitely.
This caused confusion at international airports and protests throughout the world, and officials have mentioned it could have recently been implemented in a more orderly way.

The claims of Washington and Mn sued to dam the ban and US Region Judge James Robart, in Seattle, suspended it. That ruling was upheld by the appeal court in San Francisco.

US federal government legal representatives now have 18 days to inquire the charm court to experience a larger snowboard of judges review the decision, or appeal immediately to the Supreme Court docket.

Similar cases have recently been filed by states, civil-liberties groups and individual holidaymakers in 11 of the 13 US appeal courtroom circuits, making the substantial Court an even more likely venue for the final decision.

Without Judge Gorsuch, the key have your say on the Supreme Courtroom court may be regarding Justice Anthony Kennedy's, a conservative who sometimes brings together the court's four liberals.

In a little-noticed 2015 US Supreme Court migration ruling, Justice Kennedy published that in some circumstances the government's motives in denying someone entry be subject to legal review. The case involved an Afghan-born naturalised Citizen of the us, Fauzia Noise, who argued she acquired the best for a full explanation from the federal government on why her Afghan hubby was denied entry.
Draw Haddad, her Los Angeles-based lawyer, said the judgment showed Justice Kennedy was "not prepared to give complete and total deference to the executive department in the enforcement of immigration laws".


 US investigators say they have corroborated several of  the communications detailed in a 35-page dossier published by a former British cleverness agent, multiple current and former US law observance and intelligence officials notify CNN. As CNN first reported, then-President-elect Donald Overcome and President Barack Obama were briefed on the existence of the documentazione prior to Trump's inauguration.

None of the recently learned information relates to the salacious allegations in the dossier. Rather it relates to conversations between foreign nationals. The carteggio details about a number of conversations between senior Russian officials and other Russian individuals. Sources would not confirm which specific interactions were intercepted or maybe the content of those discussions because of the|as a result of} classified nature of US intelligence collection programs.
Nevertheless the intercepts do validate that some of the conversations described in the dossier took place between the same individuals on the same days and from the same locations as detailed in the dossier, in line with the officials. CNN has not confirmed whether any content relates to then-candidate Trump.
The renouncement, based on intercepted sales and marketing communications, has given US intellect and law enforcement "greater confidence" in the reliability of some aspects of the dossier as they carry on and actively investigate their contents, these sources say.
Reached for comment this afternoon, White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer said, "We remain disgusted by CNN's fake news coverage. "
Spicer later called back and said, "This is more fake reports. It is about time CNN centered on the success the President has got bringing back jobs, safeguarding the nation, and fortifying relationships with Japan and other nations. The Chief executive won the election because of his vision and message for the country. "
Spokespeople for the FBI, Doj, CIA and Office of the Overseer of National Intelligence dropped to comment.
US brains officials emphasize the interactions were solely between overseas nationals, including those in or {associated with|linked with} the Russian government, intercepted during tedious intelligence gathering.
Some of the individuals involved in the intercepted communications were known to the united states intellect community as "heavily involved" in collecting information harmful to Hillary Clinton and helpful to Donald Overcome, two of the representatives tell CNN.
Until now, US intelligence and legislation enforcement officials have said they could not confirm any elements of the file.
Officials who spoke to CNN cautioned they still have not reached any judgment on whether or not the Russian government has any diminishing information about the Chief executive.
Officials did not review on or confirm any alleged conversations or group meetings between Russian officials and US citizens, including affiliates of then-candidate Trump.
Among the officials stressed to CNN they have not corroborated "the more salacious things" alleged in the file.
CNN has not reported any of the salacious allegations.
Trump dismissed the complete dossier last month during his only news convention as President-elect, saying in January, "It's all false news. It's phony products. It didn't happen very well
The dossier was entrusted as opposition research by political opponents of then-candidate Trump and compiled by a former British cleverness agent. US intelligence companies checked out the previous MI6 operative and his vast network throughout European countries and found him and his sources to be credible.

Thursday, February 09, 2017


powered by safaricom.
I love this saving culture from safaricom where it encourages Kenyans to save some little amount every week on their M-shwari saving challenge. I came across their advert on one of the websites while I was looking for something and it got my attention and decided to share with you. take a look at this amazing article

The M-Shwari 52 Week Challenge

This is a saving program that aims at cultivating a saving culture among Kenyans through the easy to use M-Shwari service. The aim is to reach the achievable amount of KSHs.68,900 by spreading it throughout the year. This makes it easier for you as the saving amount increases gradually.

How it works

Starting week 1 of 2017, deposit your savings on M-Shwari starting with KSHs.50, then KSHs.100 the next week, KSHs.150 the week after that and so on and so forth, until the last week of December where you will save KSHs.2,600, and your savings will add up to KSHs.68,900. 

M-Shwari ensures the saved amount is safe and easy to deposit. The weekly savings also lead to your loan limit increasing and all deposits on M-Shwari will earn interest of 7% p.a.

To save on M-Shwari

  • Go to 'M-PESA' menu and select 'Loans and Savings’.
  • Select ‘M-Shwari’.
  • Select ‘Send to M-Shwari’.
  • Enter amount
  • Enter M-PESA PIN
  • Confirm the message displayed "send money to M-Shwari" then press OK. 

To check your saved amount

  • Go to 'M-PESA' menu and select 'Loans and Savings’.
  • Select ‘M-Shwari’.
  • Select ‘Check Balance’.
  • Enter M-PESA PIN
  • Confirm the message displayed

Wednesday, February 08, 2017


looking for a place to take your better-half this valentines day? well Eldoret town is the coolest place to visit. It has all the best Hotels ranging from 3 star to five star where you can enjoy out with your loved one.Here is a list of the best hotels to visit this valentines day.


Boma Inn Eldoret

Continental International Kenyan


Bakers Point

Cafe Bakery Ice Cream & Desserts



African Swahili Barbeque Kenyan


Hotel Horizon

African Continental Kenyan


Mamma Mias Restaurant



Pizza Bistro

Continental International Pizza Kenyan


Poa Place

African Continental Cafe Kenyan


The Well Irish Pub & Restaurant

Irish Bar Kenyan

FOR THOSE LOVERS OF ADVENTURE AND HIKING FEEL FREE TO CONTACT ME FOR WEEKENDS AND HOLIDAY EVENTS. there are a lot of places to explore and you will fall in love with our beautiful county (The City of Champions) please comment here and i will get back to you with more details and dates



valentine is finally here and most people don't know what to get for their loved one's yet. Because a gift should be a surprise and you don't want to be predictable on what you will buy for your better-half read this list of best gifts to give your loved one this valentines day. You can also decide to just find a way to ask your partner what he admires without giving a hint that it what you will get Him/Her on the day of valentine. so check out this list if it can help




  3. SHOES

Friday, February 03, 2017

Nationalism can be defined as the desire for Africans to end all forms of foreign control and influence so as to be able to take charge of their political, social and economic affairs. During the colonial era Africans were not only exploited economically, but their political and socio-culture institutions were also interfered with. This exploitation and oppression gave rise to Nationalism.
Nationalism can also be defined as the desire for independence and self-determination among a group of people.
In Africa, Nationalism was a gradual process that grew out of the determination of different African communities to rid themselves of the oppressive colonial rule they were subjected to resistance movements that spread all over the continent at the onset of colonialism were part of the early African Nationalism. They included the maji maji rebellion in Tanganyika, the murenga war in southern Rhodesia now Zimbabwe, the Nandi uprising in Kenya and the mandi revolt in the Sudan.
Historically Nationalism in Kenya started after the arrival of colonialist in Africa but increased after the first world war (from 1920s-1930s) however after second world war Nationalism in Africa gained momentum where the idea of Nationalism spread in Africa. From 1945 the African Continent was full of nationalists strangers. These were caused by internal and external factors.
The internal factors are those factors that prevailed within the continent of Africa and eventually contributed to the rise and development of African Nationalism. These factors included:-
Colonial exploitation. The main objective of colonialists was economic gain from colonies Africans were badly exploited in terms of Natural and human resources. The Africans were subjected to low wages, long working hours, low prices for their cash crops, poor working conditions, taxation, land alienation and so on. This exploitation was intensified in all colonies soon after the second world war. The colonialists launched various colonial development plans and schemes in Africa to facilitate the recovery of their economy. Colonies were to share the cost of rehabilitation capitalists economies. They established schemes and plans sparked high spread resistance in all colonies as Africans could no longer  tolerate exploitations, forced cash crops cultivation and so on. In some colonies Africans were forced to grow cash crops instead of food crops for example in Kenya. This resulted in persistent hunger and famine. Worst still peasants were paid very low prices for their crops hence this one stimulated them to rise and fight for their rights amongst the colonial dominion hence leading to the rise of African nationalism. The role played  by African elites. Colonial Education produced various African elites. Among others were kwame nkruma (Ghana)
Julius Nyerere (Tanganyika) Nandi Azikiwe (Nigeria), Sam Nujoma (Namibia), Patrice Emery Lumumba (Republic of Congo) Nelson Mandela (South Africa) Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya) Milton Obote (Uganda) Keneth Kannda (Zambia) Joaguim Albert Chissano (Mozambique) Hastings Kamuzu Banda (Malawi) Leopold Seder senghor (Senegal ), Frantz Fahon (Algeria) Robert Mugabe (Zimbabwe among others who used that  education to fight for nationalism. These elites organized their people to unite mass nationalism movement to fight for their rights.
The influence of Liberia and Ethiopia. The presence of independent states in Africa such as Ethiopia and Liberia also influenced the growth of nationalism in Africa. This showed other Africans to rule their own countries. This as a result influenced the rise of nationalism in Africa.
The formation of political parties. The formation of political parties encouraged the growth of nationalism in Africa. In east Africa parties like KANU and KADU (Kenya), TANU (Tanganyika)., KY (Uganda) mobilized the people together to fight for their independence hence the rise of nationalism in Africa.
The influence of mass media. After world war II Africa nationalists adapted the use of newspapers to spread anti-colonialism grievances. The elites used newspapers to expose colonial exploitation  and mobilize the fellow Africans for nationalist struggle.
Improvement of transport network and urbanization enhance Africa nationalism. For instance improved transport led to concentration of population in mining centers, cash crops growing and processing areas and port cities. People of different culture background shared their experiences. They suffered the same problems of racial discrimination, unemployment and poor living conditions. This led to the desire of people to unite and fight for their independence leading to the rise of nationalism.
Loss of independence colonialism interfered with Africans political institutions. The colonial officials disregarded traditional rulers such as council of elders in the decentralized societies and in their places appointed chiefs. Those appointed were rejected by the elders who regarded them as mere instruments of colonial oppression.
Unfair taxation. The colonial government introduced a system of taxation which was unfair to Africans for example hut tax, poll ‘tax and breast tax’ . Breast tax was payable by every mature women. Hut tax was levied on every African hut in Kenya while poll tax was paid by every adult man. The taxes were collected with a lot of brutality and ruthlessness. Due to this Africans started to resist and opposed that system of government rising essence of nationalism.
Forced labour. The colonial government forced Africans to provide labour in the European settler farms and in government projects. Africans were paid low wages only enough to pay taxes to the colonial government. This policy made Africans to form federations against forced labour between 1930-1960. This resulted in African nationalism.
Loss of land back for example in Kenya, southern Rhodesia, south Africa, Mozambique and Ghana between 1930-1960 the colonial administration started to enact a land commission aimed at taking African highlands and making them white settler farms. They succeeded in taking the African highlands. Africans were therefore made squatters in their own land. This agitated Africans hence nationalism.
Africans were against the introduction of the kipande system registration. The colonial government introduced the kipande system mainly to restrict African movement from one working area to places where they could find well paying job this led to Africa nationalism
Religion also played an important role in nationalism. The Ethiopian movement, a religion which was inspired by Biblical references, that Africa and black people would dominate the world politically, socially and economically. Due to the domination of the whites in church leadership the Africans started African independent churches which they led. This was a sign of nationalism between 1930s and 1940s .
Discrimination of Africans on the provision of social services in most parts of the continent social amenities such as schools, hospitals, clubs and other recreational facilities were provided a long racial lines. The Africans had the worst service while the best were reserved for Europeans. This fuelled nationalism since the Africans wanted to enjoy better services as well.
It should be noted that African nationalism did not emerge solely due to internal factors in the colonies.  It could also be attributed to external factors.
The role of ex-soldiers also led to African nationalism many Africans participated in world war I both  as carriers and combatants. The experience acquired in the war had a profound impact on the ex-soldiers. During the war, they interacted with Europeans and Asians. This in itself enabled them to break the myth of European superiority. They returned from the war with confidence and spirit to unite their fellow Africans to fight for independence. To a large extend the ex-soldiers were in front line to influence nationalism and to struggle for independence in their respective countries.
Some of them were Dedan Kimathi in Kenya Iddi Abdalla Pengo in Tanganyika, Ndabawingi sithole in Zimbabwe among others.
The role of pan African movements.
A philosophy that is based on the belief that African people share common bonds and objectives it advocated for unity to achieve these Objectives. The idea originated in U.S.A by black African as a movement against slavery, discrimination and other injustices. These objectives were later extended towards the total liberation of all blacks in the world. In the mid20th century activities in African adopted pan African sought to unite the continental pan-Africanism, which advocated for the unity of states and people within Africa. in its other broader form –Diaspora pan-Africanism related to solidarity among all black Africans and people of black African decent outside the African continent pan-Africanism remains a significant force on global politics. In the early 1940s kwame Nkurume from Ghana founded the African student organisation (ASO) in the US where he was a student. The organization worked with fellow Africans to demand for independence and hence the rise of nationalism in Ghana. The Pan-Africans federation (PAF) was a multinational pan-African organization founded in Manchester UK in 1944 under peter Millard General Secretary. The objectives of PAF among others was to demand for self determination and independence of African people. In 1957 Ghana became the first sub-savanna African state to gain independence and Nkruma Became its prime minister. He held Pan Africanist view that the “independence of Ghana would be incomplete without the independence of all of Africa” the statement boosted African nationalism. The pan African congress was a series of fire melting in 1919,1921, 1927 and  1945  that were intended to address the issues facing Africa due to European colonisation. One of these demands was to end colonial rule and racial discrimination. The first pan African congress in Paris France in 1919 was organized by more than 57 delegates representing is countries. It demanded that African be granted home rule and Africans should take part in governing their countries.
The second was in 1921, organization in several sessions in London, Paris and Brussels in 1923. The third pan-African congress was held in London, and Lisbon.
Among other things it demanded for the minority to dominate a black majority in Kenya, Rwandesia and south Africa. in 1927. The fourth pan African congress was held in new York and adopted resolutions similar to the third pan-africa congress meetings.
The fifth pan-African congress was held in Manchester UK in 1945. It is widely considered to be the most important of all. It was dominated by leaders from the African continent for example Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, Julius nyerere of Tanzania, mhamdi Azikiwe of Nigeria, kwame Nkurumah of Ghana, Leopold seder Senghor of Senegal and kamuzu banda of Malawi. It was organized by the influential frinidadran pan Africanist George padmore and kwame Nkurume. It was attended by an American left-wing activist and academic W.E.B Dubai as well as many scholars, intellectuals, trade colonists and political activists who would later go on to become influential leaders in various African independent movements for example Jomo Kenyatta, Nigerian statesman Jaja wachuku, Hastings Kamuzu banda, obafemi owolowo among others. He contributed to nationalism was its declaration on racial discrimination as a criminal offence and ending imperialism in Africa pan African secretariat was established which  pursued two goals. Total African independence and continental political which in two series of international conference, held to stimulate independence movement in other African colonies second , Nkruma organized the conference of independent African states to establish a diplomatic framework for the political union of Africa by initiating representatives from independent North Africa states to the conference and by holding the 1961 all African people conference.
After 1945 some prominent pan Africanists leaders such as William Dubois and Marcus Garvey fought and argued for Africa to self rule and unity. There was also the formation of several pan African organization in the US in the late 1960s and early 1970s. one of these was the African liberation support committee (ALSC) headed by poet Amiri Baraka. It worked to increase support within the united states for liberation movement in Africa.
The sixth pan African congress of June 3rd to 13th 1974 held in Dar es salaam Tanzania was headed by Julius Nyerere and organized by Mrs. Amy Jaques Garvey, Mrs. Shirley G. Dubois, Dr C.LB James Vincent Harding. It drew an international delegation of more than 5000 Africans and people of African descent including hundreds from the U.S.A. the congress discussed about total liberation of couthern African teritiries including Majority rule in south Africa. in general the major role of pan Africanism was to create African unity to demand for free national states.

The independence of other nations
The independence of India and Pakistan in 1947 and Burma in 1948 helped to inspire other African countries to fight for these victories inspired Africans to fight against colonial rule.
The alternate charter of 1941. This charter helped nationalism to gain momentum in Africa. the charter was written by Winston Churchill (British Prime Minister) and Franklin Delano Roosevelt (U.S president) who called for the respect of people rights to choose a government of their will. This increased the desire for nationalism and independence in Africa.
The Banding conference of 1955. This was an international conference of 22 Asians and seven African countries, held in the capital of Banding Indonesia. It demonstrated the determination of those 29 nations which had recently freed themselves from colonialism to have an independent voice in international  affairs. It was an important milestone in the liberation of Africa. the conference was organized and sponsored by the prime ministers of Burma (Now Myanmar), Ceylon (Now Sri Lanka), India, Indonesia and Pakistan. It took place from 18th to 24th April 1955. The conference was under president Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia as a conference chairperson. Some of  the African leaders who attended were kwame Nkuruma Gamal Abdel Nasser, Kaunda, Mandela, Patrice Lumumba, Jomo Kenyatta just to mention a few. One of the agendas was largely symbolic. It forced the great power to recognize the potential power of non-aligned nations in world politics.
The role and influence of U.N. the UN pressurized for decolonization using the trusteeship council in which the UN chair stipulates human right and the right of the colonized to self determination trustee territories like Tanganyika, Ghana, Rwanda and Burundi were supported by UN in their struggle for independence. The formation of United Nations organization favored African states to continue with Nationist struggle. Nations organization put pressure over the colonial powers to grant their colonies.
Independence for example pressurized Britain to grant independence to Tanganyika, Uganda finally Kenya.
The role and influence of U.S.A  emerged as a strong economic world power. Since the war was not fought in U.S.A. U.S.A didn’t experience destruction of their industries and infrastructure. U.S.A emerged as a world power because it was the supplier of the war requirements in Europe hence made a great fortune. Thirdly European economies were completely destroyed and could no longer maintain their colonies though they still needed them. Thus USA through the “Open door policy” supported decolonization through the decolonization commission of the UN. So as to get access to exploit these colonies which up to that time had their trade restricted to the colonial powers. Only to put this into success, USA put decolonization as a condition for the European Economic recovery under the Marshall plan. Thus using the UN USA championed the self determination principle from the Wilson’s fourteen points. Also USA championed decolonization because by then she had no colony hence for her there was nothing to lose.

Effects of second world war.
 Ex-soldiers who came back brought a few outlook due to experience and political awareness that they saw in other parts of the world. They spread new attitudes to their people hence gave rise to the growth of African nationalism. The war also caused much economic harm to Europeans a situation that forced them to intensify exploitation of Africa.  This then accelerated demands for Africans self rule in addition the crumbling of European economies as a result of the war made some Europeans to lose faith in capitalism. Socialist parties emerged and in the UK, the labour party came into power. Being socialists UK was granted independence became the values of socialism oppose exploitation in all forms including colonialism.
The role played by USSR became very outspoken against colonialism USSR strongly advocated for the liberation of Africa thus extending support to the nationalist movement.
Morally, financially, military and materially. In addition the idea of “proletarian internationalism” which advocated that all workers had to unite and fight both imperialism and colonialism as they had nothing to look at except their gains.
The emergence of new super powers USA and USSR after the second world war in 1945.
 These super powers replaced Britain, France and Germany which failed to protect world peace. The new powers wanted to be free to pursue their trading interests in Africa and wanted to spread the ideology of capitalism. Also Russia wanted to spread communism. They therefore put pressure on colonial powers to decolonise. In addition they provided support scholarships for education. They also used their influence in the UN to call for independence of Africa colonies. This encouraged the growth of nationalist movement.
The role of the labour party in Britain after world war II. The second world war led to the death, destruction of buildings and other property. As a result the conservative party led by Clement Attee. The labour party, was determined to grant independence to British colonies hence the rise of African nationalism.
Herald Macmillan speech, “The wind of change.” In his speech after visiting Africa he observed that a wind  of change was sweeping through Africa and that colonial powers had to leave Africa to avoid fighting. This encouraged the demand for independence.
The spread of communism following the Bolsheik Revolution of 1917 in Russia in which capitalism was seen as evil. Colonialism was taken to be an extension of capitalism and exploitation of the subjects which raised African self-determination.
Africans studying abroad formed student groups/Organisations that articulated African grievances. This gave rise to nationalism.
Having been subjected to exploitation, oppressive and humiliating rule and conditions, Africans reaction to the colonial rule was different from one county to another. Africa nationalism was therefore not uniform across the continent. It was violent in some colonies especially where the European settler farmers had been example for example Kenya, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Mozambique and Algeria.
On the other hand, nationalism in some colonies was less violent as the colonial powers were not as exploitative and harsh to Africans for example in Tanganyika, Uganda and Nigeria. However there is no single colony in Africa which obtained political independence without struggle.